- Title: Climate change endangers Scotlandâ€™s archeological treasures
- Date: 10th October 2019
- Summary: ROUSAY, ORKNEY, SCOTLAND, UNITED KINGDOM (SEPTEMBER 25, 2019) (REUTERS) SEA / DAMAGED WALL OF IRON AGE BUILDING SOUTH HOWE BROCH (SOUNDBITE) (English) UNIVERSITY OF THE HIGHLANDS AND ISLANDS LECTURER, JULIE GIBSON, SAYING: "Well what you can see just over here is the front door of the broch, exposed by the sea, taking away parts of the ruins and leaving a built wall still intact. And each year a little more falls as the sea batters it." PIECE OF SOUTH HOWE BROCH WALL FALLEN ONTO BEACH SOUTH HOWE BROCH WALL PIECES ON BEACH (SOUNDBITE) (English) UNIVERSITY OF THE HIGHLANDS AND ISLANDS LECTURER, JULIE GIBSON, SAYING: "We have along this tiny stretch that I'm standing in front of, we have archaeology from the last 2,000 years. So we have this broch that we're standing on and next to us we have medieval material falling out. We have Viking material squeezed in between those two and then we have the story here of the clearances, the highland clearances, which is why the houses here were abandoned in the 19th century and the early 20th century. So these are really key, iconic stories central to the understanding of Scotland really." PARTIALLY COLLAPSED WALL OF IRON AGE BUILDING SOUTH HOWE BROCH ERODED COASTLINE BETWEEN SOUTH HOWE BROCH AND MIDHOWE BROCH
- Embargoed: 24th October 2019 09:42
- Keywords: Orkney Orkney Islands Historic Environment Scotland archaeology Scotland neolithic structures Skara Brae global warming climate change University of the Highlands and Islands
- Location: SKARA BRAE & ROUSAY, ORKNEY, SCOTLAND, UK
- City: SKARA BRAE & ROUSAY, ORKNEY, SCOTLAND, UK
- Country: United Kingdom
- Topics: Environment
- Reuters ID: LVA005B0IJQSB
- Aspect Ratio: 16:9
- Story Text: Ancient British structures older than the pyramids are being threatened by climate change, experts have warned, as rising sea levels, heavier rainfall and severe weather events endanger Scotland's archeological treasures.
The Orkney Islands, situated off the north coast of the Scottish mainland, are home to more than 3,000 historical sites.
Evidence has been found of human habitation there going back 8,500 years. Some buildings on the islands date to the Iron Age, Viking rule and medieval times.
But around 1,000 sites are situated on the coastline and are under threat.
One such site is the Iron Age building South Howe Broch on the island of Rousay. Dating from between 600-400 AD, the sea has taken much of the site's western area. Now the broch wall itself is falling into the sea.
Julie Gibson, a lecturer at the University of the Highlands and Islands, says it will eventually disappear.
"What you can see just over here is the front door of the broch, exposed by the sea, taking away parts of the ruins and leaving a built wall still intact. And each year a little more falls as the sea batters it," she said.
"What we have discovered in recent years, through the use of geophysics and other things, is that... on this stretch of the coastline, all the settlement archaeology is within 100 metres of the coast edge. And so as the sea takes this heritage of ours away it's taking all that we have," she said.
A couple of hundred metres north of South Howe Broch is Midhowe Broch. This Iron Age building is well-preserved, courtesy of a sea wall built in the 1930s and well-maintained since. A spring-fed water tank, fireplace and room partitions are clearly visible. But even Midhowe Broch is at risk from climate change.
A climate risk assessment of Orkney's Neolithic sites, published by conservation public body Historic Environment Scotland (HES) in July this year, described the potential impact of climate change on the sites as "extreme" and their vulnerability as "high".
According to HES, average precipitation (rain, sleet and snow) has increased by 27% in Scotland since the early 1960s. In the same period, winter precipitation has gone up by more than 70% in parts of northern Scotland.
Wetter weather means buildings are wetter for longer, meaning water is more likely to penetrate masonry and decay it. It also leads to metal parts of buildings corroding and the ground becoming unstable. This can lead to structural collapse.
Sea levels are also rising and beach erosion is a growing problem.
Since 1970 some Orkney beaches have narrowed by an average of 16 inches (40 centimetres) per year since 1970. That is compared to an annual average loss of eight inches between 1890 and 1970, according to data from cross-governmental coastal change assessment partnership Dynamic Coast.
Increased storminess also threatens damaging Orkney's historical sites, HES says.
Arguably the most famous site of Orkney is Skara Brae. This Neolithic settlement, occupied from roughly 3100-2500 BC, features a network of stone buildings. When inhabited it was approximately one kilometre (0.6 miles) from the sea with a freshwater loch and sand dunes in between. Now it sits only a few metres from the North Atlantic.
Visitors can see the settlement's 5,000-year-old hearths, bed recesses, cupboards and dressers. Some 112,000 people visited it in 2018.
"Climate change is a really real present risk. The climate has already changed because of the influence of humans. And it's going to continue to change and that pace of change is going to speed up," said HES climate change scientist, David Harkin.
"So the risk to sites like Skara Brae and other sites around Orkney, it's real, it's here, it's happening. But it shouldn't all be doom and gloom and despair. There is an opportunity to still do something about it and to avoid the worst possible consequences of climate change," he added.
(Production: George Sargent)
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